Education Music Analysis Realisation

Durante – Regola 34

Technique in Focus: “On the use of (sequences of) 6/5s”

Regola 34 by Durante focuses on the Down 3rd, Up 2nd sequence (this schema is also an example of an inverted Cycle of Fifths). I have used the term ‘Fonte’ to apply to this sequence rather than just the Fonte as prescribed by Riepel (Gjerdingen, 2010, p. 66). The Italin word fonte translates to ‘fountain’, or ‘well’ and indicates a bass descent of a 3rd followed by the ascent of a 2nd. Typically, the Fonte is limited to the first two iterations of the sequence; however, the label is a useful one even for extended occurences of the Down 3rd, Up 2nd sequence (which can be a slightly clunky term).

In the key of E minor, the Fonte chord progression would be Em, Am7/C, D, G7/B, C, F#aug7/A, B, Em. That looks quite intimidating! It isn’t particularly useful to think of schemata (such as this Fonte sequence) as chords. Instead, think of these sequences as counterpoint. Each voice moves in its own direction in its own time; yet, when these voices sound together, they create beautiful harmony. Notice also that this Fonte schema has the strong beats as the 6/5 and the weak beats as the 5/3. This gives the sequence stronger sense of direction by using metre to emphasise harmonic tension and release.

Example Realisation

My realisation below contains a mix of two and three voices. I have included small differences in realisation for each usage of the technique in focus (bb. 1-2, 8-9, 16-17, 19-20). Notice that this partimento contains a mixture of figured and unfigured bass. Durante includes figured bass at important areas in the partimento, such as the rule Durante is teaching, and modulations. The absence of figures also highlights what Durante expects students to know when realising this partimento. He expects the student to undestand the chords implied by unfigured basses. This is mixed with the convention of abbreviating figures. Durante does not indicate figures for 5/3 chords and he uses the 6 to indicate 6/3. This may provide another explanation for the absence of some figures. This poses a challenge for modern students who may not be as well versed in figures, and most likely not at all in unfigured bass. This realisation provides one possible harmonisation of the unfigured bass.

This partimento offers a great opportunity for students to practise one of the nicest sequences, the Fonte. Listen to the audio, download the score, play the realisation, and improvise or compose your own!


Durante: Regola 34 – Bass



Durante: Regola 34 – Realisation



Gjerdingen, R. (2010). Mozart’s obviously corrupt minuet. Music Analysis, 29 (1/3), 61-82.

Gjerdingen, R. (2016). On the use of (sequences of) 6/5s. Monuments of Partimenti.

By Connor Gaydon

I am a Music graduate specialising in Musicology (primarily Partimento and Analysis). My dissertation (the chapters of which can be found on my website) focuses on understanding the Partimento method, how it was taught, the benefits it brought to students, and how we could integrate it into modern musical education. I taught piano for five years from 2014-2019 to over 70 students of Beginner to Intermediate standards before moving into Business where I work as a Business Analyst. On my website, Improving Pianists, I upload essays, book reviews, and Partimento Realisations to broaden and deepen the knowledgebase of myself and those reading. I am part of the burgeoning Partimento community by attending the second mentiParti 2019, and guest-speaking virtually in 2021. In 2022/2023 I have released my first book, 'Partimento: A Beginner Method for Classical Improvisation' on my website.

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